Responsibles : Christophe WATERLOT et Damien CUNY
Anthropogenic and degraded ecosystems are characterized by contamination events, which can be historical, complex and in very close proximity to the human population. In these contexts, it is necessary to have a large range of complementary approaches to improve knowledge about contamination and the fate of pollutants and their dispersion in ecosystems. The aim is to improve the functionality of degraded environments and to prevent and reduce environmental and health risks. This work responds to recent and important societal expectations, as well as to economic issues in urban, agricultural and forest environments.
To meet these scientific and societal challenges, the research of ER 4 focuses on diagnosing and assessing the state of ecosystems, defining new indicators of exposure and/or effects of pollutants, managing biodiversity, and ecological engineering. The problem also requires the development of a multi-scale approach, from the molecular to the landscape level, and is based on experiments in microcosms, mesocosms, and in situ. approche multi-échelle, du moléculaire au paysage et s’appuie sur des expérimentations en microcosmes, en mésocosmes, en sites ateliers et in situ.
The team's fields of expertise are varied and complementary :
- characterization and analysis of soils and sediments in agricultural, urban and forest environments,
- taxonomic and functional characterization of soil fungal, floristic and faunistic communities (meso and macrofauna),
- measurement of biological activities in soils and of biomarkers of toxicity (macrofauna and plants),
- assessment of the impregnation of vegetation (natural and cultivated) and soil fauna by pollutants (inorganic and organic pollutants),
- determination of functional traits,
- plant and fungal biomonitoring of air quality,
- assessment of population exposure in relation to the ingestion and inhalation of contaminated soil particles and dust, consumption of foodstuffs produced on polluted sites,
- the study of territorial health, social and environmental inequalities through statistical and geostatistical analyses.
The research of the ER4 are structured around 4 main topics :
- monitoring and bioindication of ecosystems, taking into account their degree of contamination, changes in territories and their uses, and climate change,
- characterisation of the interactions between various compartments of biodiversity,
- the definition of environmental quality indices, in interaction with natural environment managers and relevant organizations,
- a contribution to establishing links between the toxic effects observed on soil organisms, via biomarkers, and those observed on populations and ecosystems (functional and biofunctional indices).